American Terminology is sometimes confusing
An experienced international counselor once warned that a misconception frequently develops around the American use of the word "grade."
As with many words in the English language, grade has more than one definition and that definition can be confusing. In American, grade can refer to both the "level" of study reached by a student and also the "marks" earned in a class. Even more confusing, ^making the grade" in America can mean both successfully passing a course and realizing success on several levels—a typically confusing English example!
The international student learning English is may confront these challenges frequently because of language and cultural differences. This is especially confusing when the American penchant for slang and idiomatic expressions are added. For instance, many American students will refer to their "major" and their "career" almost as if they had one definition. Actually, a college major is the intended course of study such as engineering or medicine. A career is the actual job(s) practiced after graduation such as a civil engineer or anesthesiologist.
There is not enough room in any single publication to spell out all the confusion in American English. We offer this list of education-related words and anacronyms of special interest to the international student:
GMAT - This Graduate Management Admissions Test is set by the Education Testing Service (ETS). Many schools require it from students applying for a Masters in Business Administration (MBA). A score of 450 or more usually is required for graduate admission.
GPA - Grade Point Average. The average marks scored in your accumulated college study. It is computed by adding all your grades and dividing them by the number of courses taken. Most GPAs are based on a system of "4," with a perfect "A" (excellent) represented by a 4.0 and an average by 2.0.
Graduate Programs—The course of study leading to a master's degree or doctorate. They must follow completion of a bachelor's degree program.
GRE—Graduate Record Examination. This is the test set by the Education Testing Service and is required by many schools for students applying for master's degrees other than a Master's of Business Administration (MBA).
IAP-66—This is the immigration form issued by the State Department through a United States school to an international student applying for a J-1 exchange visitor visa.
MBA—Master of Business Administration degree.
Post-Secondary Institution—A college, university, professional or technical school. Any higher education beyond the American 12th grade (final public education).
1-20—This is Immigration Form 20 which is issued by schools in the United States to international students applying for an F-1 (academic) or M-1 (vocational) visa.
APT—Advanced Placement Test. The test set by the Education Testing Service (ETS) taken by students wishing to enter a U.S. university with advanced standing.
B. A. Bachelor of Arts degree, usually four years, available from colleges and universities.
B. S. Bachelor of Science degree, usually four years, available from colleges and universities.
SAT—The Scholastic Aptitude Test is a test provided by the Education Testing Service (ETS) for students wishing to enter a United States university as a freshman. It commonly is known as a college "entrance examination."
TOEFL - The Test of English as a Foreign Language. This is a test given by the Education Testing Service (ETS) for determining a student's standard of English. Test centers are available in many international students' home countries. A score of 500 usually is required for undergraduates and 550 for graduates. Students not passing the test may still enroll in American schools provided they and the school make immediate arrangement for English as a Second Language (ESL) study.
Confusing – запутанный
Experienced – опытный
Counselor – советник
Warn – предупреждать
Misconception – неправильное понимание
Frequently – часто
Grade – 1. Уровень: класс; 2, оценка (амер)
Definition – определение
Refer (to) – относиться (к)
Level – уровень
Reach – достичь, добиться
Earn marks – получать отметки
Confront – сталкиваться
Challenge – возникшая проблема
Penchant – склонный
Added – добавлен
Major – специализация
Graduation – окончание (вуза)
Intend – намереваться
Civil – гражданский
Admission – прием
Apply – обращаться
Score – сумма очков (баллов)
Require – требоваться
Average – средний
Compute – подсчитывать
Excellent – отличный
Master – магистр
Degree – научная степень
Completion – завеершение
Issue – выдавать
Secondary – средний
Institution – учреждение
Final – заключительный
Academic – учебный, академический
Advanced – продвинутый